IWD: description, features, and operating principle

IWD: description, features, and operating principle

IWD (Individual-Wheel Drive) is an individual all-wheel-drive system installed on electric cars. In this system, each wheel is driven by its own electric motor. This technology improves the vehicle’s handling and stability in various road conditions.

Operating principle

All signals are transmitted via a Bluetooth module to a microcontroller. In turn, the controller activates 4 DC permanent-magnet motors. Each of them can rotate at up to 1,200 rpm and drive the wheel on which it is installed. The power delivered to each motor is adjusted by a special driver circuit.

A separate stepper motor is used by IWD for steering control. It receives signals directly via its individual microcontroller.

Advantages and disadvantages of cars equipped with IWD

Advantages Disadvantages
If one wheel hub motor breaks down, the rest of them continue working. Their total power is enough for the car to reach the nearest garage or service station. Batteries require regular recharging after every 80–160 kilometres, depending on the version.
The wheel hub motors are easy to replace. Long battery charging time.
Low weight due to the absence of heavy shafts. High price.

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